Grace Raymond Hebard was born in 1861. In 1882 she became the first woman to graduate with a B.S. in civil engineering from the University of Iowa. That year she moved to Cheyenne with her mother and brothers—Fred, Lockwood— and her sister, Alice and became the only female draftsman in the surveyor general's office. She later rose to the position of deputy state engineer, but did not like the work or the pay. She resumed her studies by correspondence and earned a Master of Arts degree from the same university in 1885. Hebard kept her eye on construction of a brand-new university in Laramie, which was completed in 1886. Through her connections, she received a paid appointment as secretary to the University of Wyoming Board of Trustees in 1891, a position allowed her great influence in the new school’s governance. Ambitious and energetic, two years later, in 1893, Hebard received a Ph.D. in political economy from Illinois Wesleyan University, again by correspondence, and then went on to become UW’s first librarian, a professor of history and politics, a lawyer (although non practicing), as well as Wyoming women’s tennis and golf champion.
Hebard studied western history and in particular the history of Wyoming. She published multiple books focusing on pioneers, Native Americans, and Wyoming government. Her writing was criticized for romanticism and for her tendency to create narratives that supported her theses. This tendency is seen in her promotion of Wyoming resident and first justice of the peace Esther Hobart Morris as the “Mother of Woman Suffrage.”
Hebard was a good friend of Carrie Lane Chapman Catt, president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). The two Iowa natives pioneered in receiving college degrees at a time when it was unusual for women. Hebard began as a suffrage activist early on and realized that she also had a knack for public speaking. After becoming president of NAWSA in 1900, Catt often recruited Hebard as a speaker who could point out that before becoming a state in 1890, Wyoming women had been voting for 20 years. Catt called upon Hebard to serve on the Suffrage Emergency Brigade that lobbied Connecticut's governor in May 1920 for the state's legislature to become the 36th state to ratify the 19th Amendment. Although that effort failed, Hebard’s national reputation was made. Once the 19th Amendment had passed, Hebard was among the select few who spoke at the 1920 suffragist celebration in Chicago. Hebard’s friendship with and respect for Catt led the UW professor to convince her faculty colleagues to award the University of Wyoming's first honorary degree to Catt in 1921.
Additional content for this collection can be found in the "Inventory for collection."
Grace Raymond Hebard, July 1885
Hebard came to Cheyenne, Wyoming, in 1882 to take a short-term draftsman's job with the U.S. Surveyor General's office, which surveyed and mapped Wyoming Territory. After the essential mapping was done, the federal staff was reduced and she moved to the WY Territorial Surveyor General’s Office in 1889 where she rose to the rank of deputy state engineer. By 1891 she had moved to Laramie full time.
Grace Raymond Hebard and family, April 24, 1886
Hebard's widowed mother Margaret (1830-1902), sister Alice (1859-1928), and two brothers Frederic (1857-1920) and Lockwood (1867-1942) moved to Cheyenne with her. Alice became a teacher in Wyoming.
Agnes Wergeland, Grace Raymond Hebard and Agnes Wright, University of Wyoming library, ca. 1910
Hebard's close friend and housemate, Dr. Agnes Wergeland (far left), was the first women to earn a doctoral degree in Norway. In 1902, Wergeland became Chair of the Univ. of Wyoming's History Department where she worked until her death in 1914.
Grace Raymond Hebard with University of Wyoming's "Old Main," in the background, ca. 1910
By 1910, Hebard had become a prominent figure at the University and in Wyoming beginning as secretary (later voting member) of the University's Board of Trustees and then as a professor, historian, and author.
"The First Woman Jury" by Grace Raymond Hebard published in the Journal of American History, Vol. 7, No. 4, 1913
On March 7, 1870, women served for the first time in history on a formal jury in Laramie, Wyoming. This article represents Hebard's version of those events.
Letters from Alva Belmont, President, Political Equality Association to Grace Raymond Hebard, December 23, 1913 and January 3, 1914
Wealthy socialite and suffragist Alva Belmont founded the Political Equality Association in 1909. In these two letters to Hebard she expresses interest in Hebard's article in The Journal of American History about the first women to serve on a jury in Laramie in March 1870.
Letters from NAWSA Secretary Mary Boyd to Grace Raymond Hebard, September 20, 28 and October 25, 1916
Boyd requests data from Hebard that can help NAWSA prove that "women are a desirable element in the electorate."
Letter from NAWSA President Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, November 14, 1916
Catt was working to gather facts from twelve suffrage states to build a case proving women's competency to vote. Catt references "Mr. Wilson." Woodrow Wilson was lukewarm to women's suffrage when elected U.S. President in 1913. It wasn't until 1918 that he publicly supported it.
Letter from Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, November 15, 1916
In a follow-up to her letter from Nov. 14, 1916, Catt requests specific information from Hebard in regards to Wyoming.
Speech titled "Liberty, Freedom, Equality" given by Grace Raymond Hebard, Cheyenne, July 21, 1917
Speech given at dedication ceremony for a plaque in Cheyenne designating the place where women's suffrage was passed by the Wyoming Territorial Legislature on December 10, 1869.
"In a Suffrage Garden," The Woman Citizen, November 19, 1917
An article in The Woman Citizen featuring Hebard and University of Wyoming English professor Mabel L. Anderson (shown with Hebard in photo captioned "In Garden Togs"). The article mentions Hebard's "Americanization" efforts. The woman seen with Hebard in the photo captioned "Dr. Hebard's class in knitting" is her sister Alice Marven Hebard. The Woman Citizen was a suffrage magazine founded by Carrie Chapman Catt in 1917.
Letter from Nettie Shuler to Grace Raymond Hebard, July 29, 1918
NAWSA Corresponding Secretary Nettie Shuler writes to Hebard about Carrie Chapman Catt's exhaustion from her suffrage efforts. At the time Hebard was in Clinton, Massachusetts, visiting local physician and fellow suffragist Dr. Irene Morse.
Letter from Nettie Shuler to Grace Raymond Hebard, January 24, 1919
Shuler asks Hebard for the Wyoming Legislature's vote returns on suffrage, county by county.
Letter from Wyoming Secretary of State W. E. Chaplin to Grace Raymond Hebard, March 22, 1919
Chaplin copies Hebard on a letter his office sent to NAWSA President Catt stating the benefits of women's suffrage to Wyoming.
Letter from Wyoming Deputy Secretary of State Harold M. Symons to Grace Raymond Hebard, July 8, 1919
Symons informs Hebard of the vote by the Wyoming Legislature on the House Joint Resolution No. 1 on Woman Suffrage.
Letter from Mrs. Halsey W. Wilson of NAWSA to Grace Raymond Hebard, July 23, 1919
Wilson requests funds for a gift to NAWSA President Catt for her efforts in gaining passage of the 19th Amendment by the U.S. Congress on June 4, 1919. Work was not done though, and the suffragists knew it. After Congress passed the amendment, at least 36 states needed to vote in favor of it for the amendment to become law. This process is called "ratification."
Letter from Wyoming Governor Robert D. Carey to Grace Raymond Hebard, October 22, 1919
Governor Carey states that he will arrange his schedule to meet with Carrie Chapman Catt while Catt is visiting Laramie for a meeting of Wyoming's 26-person Ratification Committee, which was headed by Hebard. The meeting was held on November 11, 1919. Catt was also there to help found a chapter of the newly established League of Women Voters.
Letter from Ida Husted Harper to Grace Raymond Hebard, November 13, 1919
Hebard has agreed to write the Wyoming chapter for Volume V. It appears Hebard had hoped to use her article on the first women's jury that was published in 1913 in The Journal of American History.
Speech titled "Fifty Years Ago" by Grace Raymond Hebard, Cathedral Hall, Laramie, November 11, 1919
At the Ratification Committee meeting in Laramie, Hebard commemorated the writing and passage of the 1869 suffrage bill in Wyoming with a speech. She depicts Esther Hobart Morris as "The Mother of Woman Suffrage," although doubt is later cast on that characterization. See this WyoHistory.org article about Hebard for more about this claim.
Grace Raymond Hebard, Carrie Chapman Catt, and others at site in Laramie of the 1870 trial with first women jurors, November 1919
During Catt's visit to Laramie for the Ratification Committee meeting, Hebard (center) and women in Catt’s party visited the site of the first courtroom where women served on a jury—once the Trabing Brothers store, by then the disused Variety Theater. Catt is shown third from right.
"Suggestions for State Chapters" from Ida Husted Harper, November 11, 1919
Harper provides NAWSA state chapters with instructions for Volume V of History of Woman Suffrage. Harper (1851-1931), a prominent suffragist, had previously authored a three-volume biography of suffrage leader Susan B. Anthony at Anthony's request. Harper also co-edited and collaborated with Anthony on volume four (1902) of the six-volume History of Woman Suffrage and completed the project by solo writing volumes five and six (1922) after Anthony's death.
Grace Raymond Hebard at in her office at the University of Wyoming, ca. 1919
Letter from Nettie Shuler to Grace Raymond Hebard, November 22, 1919
Nettie Shuler's daughter Marjorie is mentioned in the letter. Nettie and Marjorie were active suffragists on the national scene, particularly after the death of Nettie's husband Frank in 1916. Carrie Chapman Catt's visit to Wyoming is also referenced.
Telegram from Nettie Shuler to Grace Raymond Hebard, December 9, 1919
Shuler asks Hebard urgently if a proclamation by the Wyoming governor means ratification of the suffrage amendment. It did not. The level of tension and anticipation was high as national suffragists tallied the states willing to ratify the amendment.
Letter from Wyoming State Librarian Agnes R. Wright to Grace Raymond Hebard, December 17, 1919
Agnes Wright (later Agnes Wright Spring) was a protégé and friend of Hebard's. She was Wyoming State Librarian from 1917 to 1921. Here Wright supplies Hebard with data for Volume V of the History of Woman Suffrage. Wright also includes a note about Esther Hobart Morris.
Letter from C. D. Oviatt to Grace Raymond Hebard, December 26, 1919
Hebard wrote letters on Dec. 22 to Wyoming state senators encouraging them to ratify the 19th amendment. Senator Oviatt indicates support for the amendment and expresses disappointment in Wyoming's governor for not calling for a vote sooner.
Letters from William Daley to Grace Raymond Hebard, December 27 and 30, 1919
In response to Hebard's Dec. 22 letter, Senator Daley initially resists the call for a special session to vote on suffrage, but changes his viewpoint, in part due to additional pressure from Hebard.
Letter from A. C. Fonda to Grace Raymond Hebard, December 27, 1919
In response to Hebard's Dec. 22 letter, Senator Fonda responds that he has been "pestering" the governor for two months to call a special session about the suffrage amendment.
Grace Raymond Hebard at a flag observance ceremony, ca. 1920
Letter from Wyoming State Historian Eunice Anderson to Grace Raymond Hebard, January 2, 1920
Anderson refers to Mrs. Jenkins. Therese A. Jenkins was an early and prominent Wyoming suffragist. Anderson also laments how politicization of the amendment has caused conflict for her as a ratification supporter who is also a state employee.
Telegram from Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, January 5, 1920
NAWSA President Catt thanks Hebard for her efforts and notes she is awaiting the date of a special legislative session in Wyoming to vote on ratification.
Letter from Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, January 6, 1920
Hebard is to be one of the national speakers at a celebration honoring Susan B. Anthony's 100th birthday. From the letter one gathers that the NAWSA Board of Directors has overridden President Catt on the length of time each presenter can speak.
Letter from Ida Husted Harper to Grace Raymond Hebard, January 15, 1920 and draft of Wyoming chapter for Volume V of History of Woman Suffrage
Harper thanks Hebard for sending a draft of the chapter, noting that Wyoming has been slow in ratifying the 19th amendment. Also included is Hebard's draft for the chapter.
Telegram from Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, January 28, 1920
Catt sends congratulations that Wyoming ratified the 19th Amendment.
Program for NAWSA convention in Chicago, February 12-18, 1920
Leaflet showing events during NAWSA's convention. Hebard was a speaker during the "Ratification Banquet" on February 14.
Letter from Marjorie Shuler to Grace Raymond Hebard, March 5, 1920
Shuler asks Hebard for text from her Feb. 14 NAWSA convention speech to inspire women to vote. Shuler writes that Hebard was a "big hit" at the convention.
Letter from WY Secretary of State W. E. Chaplin to Grace Raymond Hebard, March 8, 1920
Chaplin supplies Hebard with the vote tally from the Wyoming Legislature's Special Session on the 19th Amendment.
Letter from Clara Hyde to Grace Raymond Hebard, March 13, 1920
Hyde was one of President Catt's closest co-workers at NAWSA. Hyde encourages Hebard to participate in an international women's suffrage convention due to Hebard's success at NAWSA's Chicago convention in February.
Letter from Maud Wood Park to Grace Raymond Hebard, March 29, 1920
Maud Wood Park led NAWSA’s congressional committee with great success due to her knowledge of the legislative process and lobbying techniques. She next chaired the newly established League of Women Voters designed to assist women carry out their new voting responsibilities in anticipation of passage of the 19th Amendment.
Letter from Wyoming State Librarian Agnes R. Wright to Grace Raymond Hebard, March 1920
Wright writes that Esther Hobart Morris' son Robert confirmed to her that his mother influenced William Bright on the women's suffrage bill passed by the Wyoming Territorial Legislature in 1869.
Telegram from Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, April 12 1920
Catt urgently requests that Hebard join a group lobbying Connecticut Governor Marcus H. Holcomb for the state's legislature to become the 36th state to ratify the 19th Amendment. The group would be called the "Emergency Suffrage Corps" and the "Emergency Suffrage Brigade."
Letter from Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, April 15, 1920
Catt sends a rallying call to 48 women throughout the U.S., including Hebard, to participate in the Connecticut lobbying campaign. Catt's strategy to gain the needed 36th state is described.
Letter from Rose Young to Grace Raymond Hebard, April 17, 1920
Author and suffragist Rose Young oversaw the Leslie Bureau of Suffrage Education and publicity for the Leslie Woman Suffrage Commission and NAWSA. The bureau was named for funder Miriam Leslie. Here Young provides text for each Emergency Suffrage Corps member to use to publicize her work in her local newspaper. Hebard has made notations on the letter.
Letter from Katharine Ludington to Grace Raymond Hebard, April 21, 1920
NAWSA Connecticut Chapter President Katharine Ludington informs Hebard as to how the Connecticut hearing with the governor is to be conducted on May 7. She writes that NAWSA activists are "very tired" but are now invigorated by women coming from across the U.S. to assist in Connecticut.
Letter from Carrie Chapman Catt "To the Connecticut Campaigners," April 22, 1920
NAWSA President Catt provides details and speaking points to the Emergency Suffrage Corps (whom she calls the "Connecticut Campaigners").
Letter from Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, April 2?, 1920
Catt informs Hebard of her placement for the suffrage rallies in Connecticut on May 3 and provides notes on the "Republican appeal." Connecticut’s Republican political boss, J. Henry Roraback, was urging his congressional delegation not to support the 19th Amendment. And to reject calls for a special legislative session to ratify it, in fear that 200,000 new voters would disrupt Republican control of the state. Catt's appeal attempts to counteract that argument. Hebard made notations on the Republican appeal document.
NAWSA press release, April 22, 1920
Press release issued by Rose Young detailing plans of the Emergency Suffrage Corps in Connecticut. Mentioned in the release is the Men's Republican Ratification Committee which assisted the suffragists.
Letter from Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, April 22, 1920
Catt invites Hebard to her farm after the Connecticut campaign. Catt also requests that women in enfranchised western states like Wyoming emphasize to the Connecticut governor that women's suffrage, like men's suffrage, isn't questioned in the West. And that western governors have deemed national women's suffrage an issue worthy of a special legislative session.
NAWSA press release, April 28, 1920
This press release mentions Hebard as the Wyoming representative in the Emergency Suffrage Corps, as well as names of women representing other states.
Letter from Carrie Chapman Catt to "My dear Campaigner," April 29, 1920
Catt provides lodging, dining, and travel instructions to the Emergency Suffrage Corps.
"Advance Guard of Suffrage Emergency Corps Arrives," New York Tribune, May 2, 1920
Article featuring quotes by Hebard including her statement that "…there is no such thing an an anti-suffrage man in our state--much less a woman."
Letter from Ruth McIntire Dadourian to Grace Raymond Hebard, May 4, 1920
Hebard is shown as one of the women invited by NAWSA to deliver a seven-minute speech at the hearing before Connecticut's Governor Holcomb on May 7. The letter includes speaking points written by NAWSA for the presenters.
Telegram from Wyoming Governor Robert D. Carey to Connecticut Governor Marcus H. Holcomb [sic], 1920
In this undated telegram, Gov. Carey encourages Gov. Holcomb to ratify the 19th Amendment. The telegram most likely dates to May 1920.
"Pass Resolution for Special Session," Norwich Bulletin, May 5, 1920
Newspaper article detailing the suffrage rally held in Norwich, Connecticut, on May 3, including extensive remarks from Hebard.
"Special Emergency Week" flyer, May 7, 1920
NAWSA flyer promoting turnout at the Connecticut capitol on May 7 when members of the Emergency Suffrage Corps meet with the governor.
Note from Grace Raymond Hebard to Alice Marvin Hebard, May 8?, 1920
Hebard writes to her sister using the pet name of "Betz" that she will be traveling to Catt's home. "Juniper Ledge" in New Castle, New York, was a home Catt shared with Mary Hay from 1919 to 1928. Hebard modestly states that others say she spoke well before the Connecticut Governor Percival Clement about ratifying the 19th Amendment.
Letter from Carrie Chapman Catt "To the Connecticut Campaigners," May 10, 1920
A thank you note to the Emergency Suffrage Corps. Catt writes that a decision by the Connecticut governor for a special session has yet to be made. Whatever the case, Catt states, it was "a Great Adventure."
Society and Women's Page, Laramie Daily Boomerang, May 15, 1920
This newspaper column by Hazel Wilson relates that Hebard's manuscript "The Bozeman Road" will be published and highlights Hebard's visit to Connecticut as part of the Emergency Suffrage Corps.
Letter from Katharine Ludington to Grace Raymond Hebard, May 26, 1920
Ludington thanks Hebard for her work in Connecticut and notes that the state's governor did not approve a special session.
Letter from Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, September 28, 1920
In a handwritten letter from Catt (transcript provided), she writes of being called to Tennessee, which ratified the 19th Amendment on August 18, 1920, and was the 36th state needed. The letter's personal tone indicates the friendship between the two women, which continued until Hebard's death in 1936.
Excerpt from the "First Biennial Report of the State Historian of the State of Wyoming, for the Period Ending September 30, 1920," p. 146-152
Text relating to Wyoming Legislature's Special Session on Jan. 26-28, 1920, in which the 19th Amendment was ratified by the state. Includes a speech by WY Gov. Carey and an address by Laramie Mayor Edward Ivinson made at the Ratification Committee meeting on Nov. 11, 1919.
Letters from Mabeth Hurd Paige to Grace Raymond Hebard, October 14 and 18, 1920
Letters from Paige relating to the establishment of a Wyoming chapter of the recently organized National League of Women Voters. Later Paige would, in 1922, become of the first four women elected to the Minnesota House of Representatives.
Letter from Agnes Wright to Grace Raymond Hebard, November 8, 1920
Wright informs Hebard of the disappointing news that Utah women, not Wyoming women, were actually the first to vote. She also expresses surprise that Carrie Chapman Catt openly supports Democratic presidential candidate James M. Cox. Indeed, in a letter to Hebard dated Sept. 28, 1920, Catt expresses disdain for both presidential candidates (see identifier 32_29_1920_Sept 28).
Letter from Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, November 18, 1920
Catt apologizes for the time it took for NAWSA to respond to congratulatory messages after passage of the 19th Amendment. She writes too of regret for "misunderstandings" and the "venture into party politics" involved in the suffrage campaign, possibly referring to the Tennessee campaign, although it resulted in ratification by the 36th state.
Letter from Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, May 16, 1921
Hebard teamed up with another University of Wyoming professor, Dr. June Etta Downey, in 1921 to convince faculty members to award UW's first honorary degree to Carrie Chapman Catt. In this handwritten letter Catt ponders what type of "paraphernalia" she needs to wear for the occasion. Transcript provided.
Letter from Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, May 30, 1921
Catt writes another letter in anticipation of her upcoming visit to Laramie to receive the first UW honorary degree, which she received June 12, 1921. Transcript provided.
Carrie Chapman Catt at the University of Wyoming, June 12, 1921
Carrie Chapman Catt (center) with Hebard (to the left of Catt) and other University of Wyoming women during Catt's visit to receive honorary degree.
Letter from Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, June 20, 1921
Catt writes Hebard of her experiences at Iowa State College (now Iowa State University) in Ames where, on June 15, 1921, she was the first woman to deliver a commencement address. Transcript provided.
Letter from Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, June 27, 1921
Catt describes a NAWSA event and mentions her memorial trees. Catt and her live-in companion Mary Garrett Hay fastened memorial plaques dedicated to suffrage leaders on trees on Catt's farm, Juniper Ledge. Transcript of letter provided.
Letter from Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, August 10, 1921
In addition to other news, Catt writes Hebard of a friend who believes Catt should run for U.S. Senate or become president of a college. She also mentions possible inclusion of Hebard's version of Esther Hobart Morris' history in a volume of the History of Woman Suffrage. Transcript of letter provided.
Letter from Ida Husted Harper to Grace Raymond Hebard, December 23, 1921
Harper thanks Hebard for her efforts in conferring the honorary degree to Carrie Chapman Catt and for photos of Catt's visit to Laramie in June 1921. Harper also mentions her work on Volume V of the History of Woman Suffrage.
Letter from Rose Young to Grace Raymond Hebard, March 15, 1923
Catt writes of her active schedule, mentions her book Woman Suffrage and Politics, and comments that "ignorant criticisms by ignorant people" caused premature illness and death of Presidents Harding, Roosevelt, and Wilson.
Letter from Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, September 27, 1923
Catt writes of her active schedule, mentions her book Woman Suffrage and Politics, and comments that "ignorant criticisms by ignorant people" caused premature illness and death of Presidents Harding, Roosevelt, and Wilson.
Letter from Grace Raymond Hebard to Carrie Chapman Catt, May 4, 1925
Hebard writes of the election of Nellie Tayloe Ross as Wyoming governor, the first woman to be elected governor in the U.S. Hebard writes approvingly of Ross' competency for her new role.
Speech titled "Politician or Diplomatist?" given by Grace Raymond Hebard, May 1928
A speech given by Hebard at an unknown location in which she again depicts Esther Hobart Morris as the "Mother of Woman Suffrage for Wyoming." As before, Hebard credits Morris with inspiring Bright to introduce the women’s suffrage bill in the Wyoming Legislature in 1869. At times Hebard would say Morris did her encouragement at a tea party; other times, a dinner party. In this speech, it is a dinner party.
Correspondence between Grace Raymond Hebard and Carrie Chapman Catt, February and March 1930
Letters exhibiting the warm friendship that still existed between Hebard and Catt. By this time, Catt's companion Mary Garrett Hay had died of a heart attack in August 1928. Hebard's beloved sister Alice, who lived with Grace, also died in 1928.
Correspondence regarding Honor Roll of the National League of Women Voters, March 29 and April 3, 1930
Correspondence between Catt and Hebard and Hebard and Wyoming State Tribune editor William Deming regarding nomination of Wyoming suffragist Therese Jenkins for the Honor Roll. Hebard also makes a case as to why she should be on the Honor Roll as well.
Correspondence between Grace Raymond Hebard and Carrie Chapman Catt, August and September 1930
Catt and Hebard carry on their friendly correspondence with mention of Catt's article on prohibition, of which she was a strong supporter. There was a historic tie between the women's suffrage movement, temperance, and Prohibition.
Correspondence between Grace Raymond Hebard and Carrie Chapman Catt, October 10 and 28, 1931
Catt and Hebard write of Catt's recovery from broken bones in her left foot and Catt's Committee on the Cause and Cure of War, which she founded in 1925 after the horrors of World War I. It was composed of organizations of educated women who attempted to understand the causes of war. They believed that it was their job as women to end wars because women were seen as morally courageous, while men were viewed as physically courageous.
Dedication to Grace Raymond Hebard by Carrie Chapman Catt, February 24, 1932
Catt writes a dedication for Hebard regarding her women's suffrage work for a celebration in Hebard's honor at the University of Wyoming.
Correspondence between Grace Raymond Hebard and Carrie Chapman Catt, October 18 and 25, 1932
Catt writes that she is stepping away from the Committee for the Cause and Cure of War. The two friends plan to meet as Catt makes a railroad trip to California.
Correspondence between Grace Raymond Hebard and Carrie Chapman Catt, 1933
Letters between Hebard and Catt that mention politics of the day, University of Wyoming affairs, Frances Perkins, Nellie Tayloe Ross, Eleanor Roosevelt, Esther Hobart Morris, and Catt's newly established Committee of Protest against the treatment of Jews in Germany.
Grace Raymond Hebard's letters to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Frances Perkins, February 6 and April 22, 1933
Hebard writes to President Roosevelt and newly appointed U.S. Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins of her pleasure at the appointment of a woman to FDR's Cabinet. She also lauds Wyoming's role when it comes to women's suffrage.
Letter from Grace Raymond Hebard to C. Watt Brandon, August 15, 1933
Hebard relates to Brandon, editor of the Kemmerer Gazette, her version of Esther Hobart Morris' role in women's suffrage, a role that seems to grow larger over the years. Hebard writes of hauling stones for a dedicatory cairn at the place where Esther Morris lived in South Pass City, Wyoming. She created the cairn on July 6, 1920.
Stone cairn created by Grace Raymond Hebard dedicated to Esther Hobart Morris
Personalized birthday thank you note from Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, January 1934
On the back of a thank you note Catt sent to birthday well-wishers, she adds a personal note to Hebard apologizing for not yet writing. The two women remained friends for many years.
Letter from Grace Raymond Hebard to William C. Deming, January 4, 1935
Hebard writes Deming that "South Pass City will be a shrine or a Mecca to which pilgrims will make their journies because it was the city of the birth of women suffrage through the efforts of Esther Morris…" and that it led to further advancement for women suffrage.
Letter from Carrie Chapman Catt to Grace Raymond Hebard, February 26, 1935
Catt writes of her founding the International Women Suffrage Alliance and how she is no longer able to attend meetings due to her age. She also notes with some amazement that women in Turkey are able to vote for the first time.
"An Appeal for Alice Stone Blackwell," May 1935
A fundraising pamphlet for assistance to prominent suffragist Alice Stone Blackwell who lost her life savings.
Letter from Grace Raymond Hebard to Carrie Chapman Catt, June 27, 1935
Hebard relates that Wyoming Day has been established on December 10 to commemorate women's suffrage in Wyoming.
"The Birth of Wyoming Day: When Woman Suffrage Came to Wyoming, December 1869: A One Act Play" by Grace Raymond Hebard and Marie Montabe, 1935
In this play, Hebard again gives Esther Hobart Morris the honor of "advocating and originating woman's suffrage in the United States." The play's co-author, Marie Montabe, was a Wyoming poet, lecturer, and writer.
Letter from Grace Raymond Hebard to Mary Gray Peck, April 10, 1936
Now terminally ill, Hebard writes to Peck reflecting on the women's suffrage campaign and Carrie Chapman Catt's role.
Correspondence between Grace Raymond Hebard and Carrie Chapman Catt, 1936
Catt offers words of encouragement to Hebard who is struggling with cancer. Hebard died in October 1936.